Embeddable languages[ edit ] Some languages, such as PHPcan be embedded in free-format text, or the source code of other languages. Another, less common, use of macros is to do the reverse: The ability to use a familiar procedural language as the macro language gives power much greater than that of Macro summary notes substitution macros, at the expense of a larger and slower compiler.
There are no competing schools of thought in microeconomics—which is unified and has a Macro summary notes core among all economists. This was a combination of both where one program served both functions, that of a macro pre-processor and an assembler in the same package. Macro-sociology, on the other hand, analyzes the structure of different positions in a population and their constraints on social relations.
The most well-known example is the transformation of let into the application of a function to a set of arguments. Microeconomics and macroeconomics are not the only distinct subfields in economics.
It was not always this way. The field is conventionally divided into the study of national economic growth in the long run, the analysis of short-run departures from equilibrium, and the formulation of policies to stabilize the national economy—that is, to minimize fluctuations in growth and prices.
According to BlauHomans was attempting to develop a behavioristic and scientific micro-theoretical alternative to macro-theoretical orientations. It was not that economists were unaware that aggregate variables could be unstable. Note that more powerful macro assemblers allowed use of conditional assembly constructs in macro instructions that could generate different code on different machines or different operating systems, reducing the need for multiple libraries.
There were also notable developments in phenomenology and ethnomethodology during the rise in popularity of micro-theories, including the work of individual theorists like Albert Schutz.
According to Wippler and Lindenbergthere are no clear cut-off points in this distinction. Macroeconomics often extends to the international sphere because domestic markets are linked to foreign markets through tradeinvestment, and capital flows.
According to Ritzerthis hostility centered on the emphasis of phenomenology and ethnomethodology with "trivial micro-sociological issues and for losing sight of the importance of social structures and social institutions. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Its main concern is the instability of aggregate variables. For example, the Racket language extends the notion of a macro system to a syntactic tower, where macros can be written in languages including macros, using hygiene to ensure that syntactic layers are distinct and allowing modules to export macros to other modules.
Whereas early economics concentrated on equilibrium in individual markets, Keynes introduced the simultaneous consideration of equilibrium in three interrelated sets of markets—for goods, labor, and finance. These languages are especially suited for this style of macro due to their uniform, parenthesized syntax known as S-expressions.
In particular, uniform syntax makes it easier to determine the invocations of macros. How they differ Contemporary microeconomic theory evolved steadily without fanfare from the earliest theories of how prices are determined. Economists also studied money and its role in the economy.
High-level languages such as C offer comprehensive access to operating system functions, obviating the need for assembler language programs for such functionality.
In fact, from the late 18th century until the Great Depression of the s, economics was economics—the study of how human societies organize the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The interaction of macros and other language features has been a productive area of research. Hygienic macro In the mid-eighties, a number of papers   introduced the notion of hygienic macro expansion syntax-rulesa pattern-based system where the syntactic environments of the macro definition and the macro use are distinct, allowing macro definers and users not to worry about inadvertent variable capture cf.
Macroeconomics, on the other hand, began from observed divergences from what would have been anticipated results under the classical tradition. However, an example constituting a micro-level process would be if the scope were focused on interaction among individuals; if the scope were focused on the value system of a society, this would constitute a macro-level process.
Applications[ edit ] Evaluation order Macro systems have a range of uses. Most assembly languages have less powerful procedural macro facilities, for example allowing Macro summary notes block of code to be repeated N times for loop unrolling ; but these have a completely different syntax from the actual assembly language.
The theoretical concerns of macro-level processes represent those of the classical period of sociology. Micro-sociology analyzes the underlying social processes responsible for relations between persons. The founding fathers of sociology-Marx, Durkheim and Weber-attended to such Macro summary notes analyses.
During this time, Blau was also developing his own theory, a type of exchange theory that extended its original micro-oriented principles to macro-level processes Ritzer,and thus was an integrative effort to also appeal to supporters of macro-theories.
Thus, it is the individual in social context that is of central importance. Macros for machine-independent software[ edit ] Macros are normally used to map a short string macro invocation to a longer sequence of instructions. It is the social institutions in societies such as the economy, government, and education that operate to assure the position of various human groups Freedman, Again, the basic assembly language code remained the same, only the macro libraries needed to be written for each target language.
From this macro-theoretical perspective, it is the structures within society that set the stage or serves as the context for individual behavior. Syntactic macro systems work instead at the level of abstract syntax treesand preserve the lexical structure of the original program. Data sub-languages and domain-specific languages Next, macros make it possible to define data languages that are immediately compiled into code, which means that constructs such as state machines can be implemented in a way that is both natural and efficient.Notes: Variable symbols in macro instructions are replaced by their values before processing.
Depending upon their values, system variable symbols with global scope can be used in the same way as global SET symbols, and system variable symbols with local scope can be used in the same way as local SET symbols. Record a Macro and Modify the Code One of the quickest ways to discover Excel VBA syntax is to record a macro.
recorded macros can be modified to make them more dynamic or to extend their functionality. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes Measuring the Economy 1 Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays.
Welcome to the new SparkNotes! Your book-smartest friend just got a makeover. 1 AP Macroeconomics Chapter One p. Economics: social science concerned with the efficient use of limited or scarce resources to.
LECTURE NOTES ON MACROECONOMIC Microeconomics studies how households and firms make decisions and how they interact in markets. Macroeconomics studies the economy as a whole. Some questions addressed by macroeconomics.Download